from the Encyclopedia Britannica, with grateful acknowledgment for permission to use it; for more about EB see www.britannica.com.
Robert Maynard Hutchins (b. Jan. 17, 1899, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.--d. May 17, 1977, Santa Barbara, Calif.), American educator and university and foundation president, who criticized over-specialization and sought to balance the college curriculum and to maintain the Western intellectual tradition.
After attending Oberlin College in Ohio (1915-17), he served in the ambulance service of the U.S. and Italian armies during World War I. He was graduated from Yale University (A.B., 1921) and Yale Law School (LL.B., 1925), where he was named dean in 1927. Two years later, at the age of 30, he became president of the University of Chicago; he remained at Chicago until 1951, the last six years as chancellor. A controversial administrator, he attempted to reorganize the departments for undergraduate and graduate study at Chicago. His Chicago Plan for undergraduates encouraged liberal education at earlier ages and measured achievement by comprehensive examination, rather than by classroom time served. He introduced study of the Great Books. At the same time, Hutchins argued about the purposes of higher education, deploring undue emphasis on nonacademic pursuits (Chicago abandoned intercollegiate football in 1939) and criticizing the tendency toward specialization and vocationalism. The university abandoned most of his reforms, however, after his departure and returned to the educational practices of other major American universities.
Hutchins was active in forming the Committee to Frame a World Constitution (1945), led the Commission on Freedom of the Press (1946), and vigorously defended academic freedom, opposing faculty loyalty oaths in the 1950s. After serving as associate director of the Ford Foundation (from 1951), he became president of the Fund for the Republic (1954) and in 1959 founded the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions (Santa Barbara, Calif.) as the fund's main activity. The Center was an attempt to approach Hutchins' ideal of "a community of scholars" discussing a wide range of issues--individual freedom, international order, ecological imperatives, the rights of minorities and of women, and the nature of the good life, among others.
From 1943 until his retirement in 1974 Hutchins was chairman of the Board of Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica and a director for Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. He was editor in chief of the 54-volume Great Books of the Western World (1952) and coeditor, from 1961, with Mortimer J. Adler, of an annual, The Great Ideas Today.
Hutchins' views on education and public issues appeared in No Friendly Voice (1936), The Higher Learning in America (1936), Education for Freedom (1943), and others. Later books include The University of Utopia (1953) and The Learning Society (1968).
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