Historical Context

modernization (industrialization, urbanizaton)
modernist (post-modernist)

1877: Phonograph: (Edison’s first recording of the human voice)

1895: Wireless telegraphy; Marconi sends signal one mile

1895: Movie camera

1895: Auguste and Louis Lumière, L'arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat (The Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat Station)

1897: Stephane Mallarmé's UN COUP DE DÉS, publishe din 1914

1899: Magnetic audio recording:

1899/1900: The Interpretation of Dreams by Freud (born 1856), follwed in 1901 by The Psychopathology of Everyday Life

1903-1911: The Making of Americans by Gertrude Stein

1904: AFL founded (American Federation of Labor)

1905 IWW founded (International Workers of the World)

1906: Victrola introduced by Victor:

1907: Caruso first to sell one millions records

1907: Radio: first regular broadcasting around Edison Disc Phonograph 1911

1905: Einstein (born 1879), “Special Theory of Relativity;” 1915/16 “General Theory”

1907: telephone (invented 1897) was in 1 in 10 households / 1929: 7 in 10

1907: Les Demoiselles D’Avignon

1908: Model T Ford

1908-1909: Khlebnikov zaum poem "Incantation by Laughter"

1908: Alred Steigitz opens 291Gallery in New York (Camera Work ran 1903-1917)

1909: Marinetti, "The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism"

1909: Personae by Ezra Pound ("In a Station in a Metro" – 1913)

1909: "Erwartung" by Arnold Schoenberg (cf "Pierre Luniere," 1912)

1910-1915: "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" by T.S. Eliot

1911: Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire

1911: Stein’s Tender Buttons (published 1913)

1912: Poetry ed. Harriet Monroe founded, Pound contributing

1912: Duchamp, "Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2"

1913: First skyscrapers – Woolworth Building (58 stories)


1913: Armory Show


1913: Alcools by Apollinaire

1913: "The Word As Such" by Khlebnikov and Kruchenykh

1913: "Du côté de chez Swan" by Marcel Proust (first volume of À la recherche du temps perdu).

1913: Le sacre du printemps by Igor Stravinsky, choreography by Nijinisky

1914: North of Boston by Robert Frost

1914: Duchamp's Bottle Rack (Fountain, 1917)

1914: Portrait of An Artist as a Young Man (1914)

1914: World War I, U.S. enters 1917, ends 1918


Jacob Espstein, Rock Drill, 1913-1915 [Vorticism]


1914-1922: Wozzek by Alban Berg

1915: Loy begins "Songs to Joannes" (originally "Love songs")

1915: H.D.'s "imagist" poem "Oread." 1916, her first book, Sea Garden.

1916: Malevich, Suprematism

1917: Russian Revolution

1917: "A Slap in the Face to Public Taste" (Khelbnikov, Kruchenykh, Burliuk, Mayakovsky)

1917: Al Que Quiere! by William Carlos Williams

1917-1918: "Dolce Et Decoum Est" by Willfred Owen

1918: Counter-Attack and Other Poems by Sigfried Sassoon

1918: Dada Manifesto

1918: Tractatus Logico-Philosphicus by Ludwig Wittgenstein

1920-1933: Prohibition

1922-1932: "Ur Sonata" by Kurt Schwitters

1922: Ulysses by Joyce and "The Waste Land" by Eliot